Make impossible states impossible

Elm has a great and expressible type system. This type system allows us to avoid having impossible states in our application.

Anti-pattern

A common pattern is to have a boolean attribute to show a loading spinner while data is loading. e.g.

type alias Model =
    { isLoading: Bool
    , data: Maybe Data
    }

But in this type is possible to have something like isLoading = false and data = Nothing. What is the meaning of this? This is probably an impossible state that should never happen.

Pattern

Which Elm you can represent your types in ways that don't allow for impossible states. e.g

type RemoteData
    = Loading
    | Loaded Data

type alias Model =
    { data : RemoteData }

Here is an excellent talk about this.